Reconstructive surgery and immobilization generally help bones to heal. Internal fixation devices, e.g., pins, screws, metal plates in conjunction with bone grafts – autogenous, allo-, bone substitutes, or vascularized – aid new bone formation and the union of fractures. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) are available as bone-growth, stimulating additives to the bony nonunion site.
Broken bones may not heal or do not appear to heal in the customary time are called nonunions. Pain, weakness and stiffness ensue.