Synovectomy is an arthroscopic or open procedure in which the synovium, or membrane that lines the joints, is surgically reduced where there is an overgrowth that often accompanies Rheumatoid Arthritis or trauma.

An inflamed synovium produces an excess of synovial fluid that can actually deteriorate joint cartilage, leading to chronic pain that is not easily treated by other means. Reduction of the synovium is done after a trial of disease-specific medications and steroid injections have failed to improve the condition.

Post-operative recovery includes occupational therapy.